Although for the most part, observers are taking sides in the Russo-US conflict and hoping for the victory of their camp, Moscow is attempting to calm the atmosphere in the Middle East. It is therefore opposed to an attack on Israël by Iran, just as it was opposed to an Israëli operation against Iran in 2008.
Israël fired nine missiles against two Syrian military bases in the night of 29-30 April 2018, causing serious damage.
What is surprising about this operation is that the Russian radars did not transmit the alert to the Syrian authorities, who were therefore unable to intercept the Israëli projectiles.
It transpires that the attack was aimed not at Syrian objectives, but at Iranian targets installed on Syrian bases.
In honour of a treaty anterior to the war, Iran came to the help of Syria from the beginning of the foreign aggression in 2011. Without this assistance, Syria would have been beaten, the Republic overthrown, and the Muslim Brotherhood installed in power. However, as from September 2015, Syria has also been supported by Russia, whose firepower is far superior. It was the Russian Air Force who destroyed the underground fortifications – built by NATO and Lafarge – with their 'bunker-buster' bombs, thereby allowing the Syrian Arab Army to recapture the ground they had lost.
Today, the aims of Iran and Russia diverge.
The Irano-Russian disagreement
Russia's intention is to eradicate the jihadist organisations and pacify the whole region. Then it hopes to restore the historical link between its Orthodox culture and Damascus, the original city of Christianity, in accordance with the strategy developed in the 18th century by Catherine the Great.
Iran is now a country divided between three distinct powers – the Revolutionary Guard, President Rohani, and Supreme Leader Khamenei, who arbitrates their differences.
The Revolutionary Guard is an elite unit, distinct from the regular army. They obey the Supreme Leader, while the army is under the command of the President of the Islamic Republic. They are attempting to free the Middle East from Anglo-Saxon imperialism. They guarantee the protection of Chiites everywhere in the world, and in return, count on them to protect Iran. They are notably deployed in Yemen, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.