“Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our
industrial-military posture, has been the technological revolution
during recent decades.
this revolution, research has become central; it also becomes more
formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is
conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.
the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been over shadowed by
task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields.
In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead
of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in
the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a
government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual
curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new
prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment,
project allocations, and the power of money is ever present and is
gravely to be regarded.
in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should,
we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public
policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological
It is the
task of statesmanship to mold, to balance, and to integrate these and
other forces, new and old, within the principles of our democratic
system-ever aiming toward the supreme goals of our free society.”...