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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
PREAMBLE

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Article 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. Article 9. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Article 10. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. Article 11. (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed. Article 12. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. Article 13. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. Article 14. (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Article 15. (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. Article 16. (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. Article 17. (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Article 18. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Article 20. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association. Article 21. (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. Article 22. Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Article 23. (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Article 24. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. Article 25. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. Article 26. (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. Article 27. (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. Article 28. Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. Article 29. (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Article 30. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

 

3 Comments in Response to

Comment by Anon Patriot
Entered on:

Great Declaration (Proclamation).  It is nothing but an extremely well-written, clever attempt, (and no doubt, a very successful one, at that) by Central Bankers (Rockefellers) to fool the idealists, "progressives", liberals, or leftists, among us.  Most of whom know little to nothing, about real world economics, or politics, or history.  To get them on board (brain-washed) for the eventual roll-out of their NWO, like all the little kids singing the Obama "Hope & Change" song.  Of course, most Republicans are equally ignorant about economics, politics, and history.  Dear God, please save America from the UN.    

Comment by Ed Price
Entered on:

Just a thought here. What about "wrongs?" There are loads of places that talk about freedom and rights. But wrongs aren't described clearly. They might be said to be the opposite of rights, or the attempted nullification of rights by some person or some group, but they aren't explained clearly.

Without a declaration of WRONGS, all this stuff about freedom and rights is almost useless. The most it can be is a good beginning. Why? Because everybody exercises his/her rights constantly in all the ways that they can. But what is keeping people from exercising their rights that they CAN'T exercise? An act of God? And act of nature? Acts of other human beings? Maybe it's WRONGS that hold back rights.

Without a comprehensive description of WRONGS, this document is tricking readers into handing authority over to group of people who will use it to exercise the WRONGS that they have left out of the document. What they are attempting to do is make their exercise of WRONGS into a right for themselves, but for nobody else.

It won't work, of course. But there will be a lot of strife and pain and loss of life until people overthrow them if they succeed in coming to power.

Comment by Dennis Treybil
Entered on:

 What follows is an analysis of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

 

 

What you see is

 

 

·                     a double line of asterisks followed by

 

 

·                     a title,

 

 

·                     a list of related keywords and phrases from the Constitution for the USoA, if any

 

 

·                     an exerpt of the text of the UDHR being discussed,

 

 

·                     a single line of asterisks

 

 

·                     commentary

 

 

·                     repeat for introduction, preamble, and all 30 articles

 

 

These comments are excerpted from The CONSTITUTION Notebook Program , available for download from CNET with the link provided. I recommend the “direct download” link.  If you click the big friendly green download button, you get a series of screens with print way too small to read.  I cancelled that.

 

 

 

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     Introduction                                               

 

 

 

 

This seminar focuses on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (UDHR). 

 

 

The 8 paragraphs of the Preamble are presented as 8 separate headings. 

 

 

A heading is devoted to each article.  A line of asterisks is used to show where the included text from the UDHR ends. 

 

 

For handy references, intuitively apparent prefixes have been added to the title of each heading. 

 

 

Under each heading, comments regarding similar or related dissimilar aspects of other rights documents are made.  In addition to these comments, related phrases in the United States Constitution are cross referenced as appropriate. 

 

 

These comments and cross references are not exhaustive.  Mostly they are to pique interest and help get you started. 

 

 

You have both documents on line.  You have leading comments.  You have a powerful tool called The CONSTITUTION Notebook Program.  Now get busy and perform the first and most essential step to preserving your rights:  KNOW them!

 

 

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     [P1] Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)          

 

 

     We

 

 

     Pre                We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more

 

 

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

 

 

Preamble

 

 

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

 

 

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WHO must recognize "the inherent dignity and . . . the equal and inalienable rights of all . . ." five billion or so "members of the human family . . ."?

 

 

The five billion or so members of the human family.

 

 

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     [P2] Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have  

 

 

     religion

 

     secure

 

     speech

 

 

     Amd 1.1            an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free

 

     Amd 1.1            or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the

 

     Amd 4.1            right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,

 

 

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

 

 

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Compare part [b] of the Preamble from the FBOR to the text preceding the first comma in this paragraph from the UDHR. 

 

 

Note positive freedom, "freedom OF (emphasis added) speech and belief". 

 

 

Note negative freedom "freedom FROM (emphasis added) fear and want". 

 

 

Who proclaimed these as "the highest aspirations of the common people"?  Refer to FDR's four freedoms speech, January, 1941.

 

 

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     [P3] Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled

 

 

     Arms

 

 

     Amd 2.1            the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

 

 

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

 

 

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Absence of rebellion is one definition of peace, a stated aim of this document.  Lawful protection of human rights is proposed as a necessary condition to prevent rebellion.  If the history surrounding the Declaration of Independence is any indication, it might work.

 

 

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     [P4] Whereas it is essential to promote the development of 

 

 

     Treaties

 

     War

 

 

     Art 1 Sec 8.11     To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and

 

     Art 1 Sec 10.3    , keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace,

 

     Art 1 Sec 10.3     foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded,

 

     Art 2 Sec 2.2      of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two-thirds of

 

     Art 3 Sec 2.1      of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be

 

     Art 3 Sec 3.1      consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering

 

     Art 6.2            Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be

 

     Amd 5.1            in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor

 

 

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

 

 

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The Declaration of Independence asserted the colonists' right (or power) to declare war and conclude peace.  The Constitution of the United States provided for both.  The UDHR here emphasizes peace.

 

 

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     [P5] Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the 

 

 

     Blessings

 

     We

 

     Welfare

 

     equal

 

 

     Pre                We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more

 

     Pre               , promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of

 

     Pre                Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves

 

     Art 1 Sec 8.1      common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but

 

     Amd 14 Sec 1.1     within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws

 

 

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

 

 

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Contrast "We the People" in the US Constitution to "the peoples of the United Nations" herein. 

 

 

The peoples' FAITH in rights alluded to here deserves some attention. 

 

 

Can rights be placed on a scale to determine their weight?

 

 

Can rights be held next to a ruler in order to determine their length?

 

 

Can rights be compared to a rainbow to determine their color?

 

 

The answer to each of these questions clearly being no, rights definitely fall in the category of things unseen.  Truly, they must be believed in.  Whether or not having faith in rights can ever make them real, if they are not believed in, that will surely prevent them from ever becoming real. 

 

 

Dignity was mentioned previously in [P1].  Worth of the human person (compare "member of the human family") is added here, along with the idea of gender neutrality.  How gender neutral is the United States Constitution?  See the 19th amendment. 

 

 

Compare the very large ends listed here, namely, "promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom" to the objective that the FBOR laid out for itself in the Preamble parts [d], [e], and [f].

 

 

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     [P6] Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achiev

 

 

     equal

 

 

     Amd 14 Sec 1.1     within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws

 

 

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

 

 

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Compare "universal respect" to the comments made under [P1]. 

 

 

Note reference to "Member States" in this paragraph of the UDHR sets it apart from the other rights documents included with the TCN program in that each of the others pertained only to the country of its origin.  No intent of cooperation by other countries is explicitly expressed in any of them.

 

 

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     [P7] Whereas a common understanding of these rights and free

 

 

 

 

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

 

 

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Compare "common understanding" in this part of the UDHR Preamble to the phrase "constantly present to all members of the body politic" in part [d] of the Preamble to the FBOR. 

 

 

Also, compare to "universal respect" in [P6] of the UDHR Preamble and comments under [P1] of the UDHR in this seminar.

 

 

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     [P8] Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights  

 

 

     jurisdiction

 

 

     Amd 14 Sec 1.1     to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the

 

 

[a]  Now, therefore,

 

 

The General Assembly

 

 

Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights

 

 

[b]  as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations,

 

 

[c]  to the end that every individual and every organ of society,

 

 

[d]  keeping this Declaration constantly in mind,

 

 

[e]  shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms

 

 

[f]  and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance,

 

 

[g]  both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. 

 

 

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The 93 words and 9 punctuation marks of this one-sentence paragraph are broken into 7 parts for discussion here.  Each part starts on a new line preceded by a blank line.  A lower case letter in brackets (not part of original text) is used to identify each part for reference herein. 

 

 

 

 

[a]  Standard lead in text for proclamation.  Identifies The General Assembly as origin of proclamation.  Asserts that UDHR (this document) is their instrument to accomplish their aims. 

 

 

 

 

[b]  The "common standard of achievement" mentioned in this part appears to be an attempt to establish an objective standard by which to measure the "social progress" aspired to in Preamble part [5].  The authors have attempted (and quite possibly succeeded) to arrive at a standard that can apply to "all peoples and nations"

 

 

 

 

[c]  This part states the objective of involving "every individual and every organ of society" in the effort to achieve the as yet unstated aims of the UDHR. 

 

 

Compare to the Preamble of the FBOR.  Part [d] in it states a desire to include all members of the body politic (UDHR here, every individual . . . of society).  Part [e] of the FBOR Preamble states a desire to include "every political institution" (UDHR here, every organ of society). 

 

 

 

 

[d]  Interjection in stream of thought.  Compare to phrases from the Preamble of the FBOR.  Part [d] "constantly present", remind . . . unceasingly". 


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