Here's one of them. Synthetic biology is the design and construction of biological systems not found in nature. This is engineering-- using molecular building blocks to create new biomolecules, such as genes.
Here's another technique. By comparing the DNA of related species, biologists can work out the DNA structure of their common ancestors.
Then, using synthetic biology, they can reconstruct these sequences in the lab. In this way, biologists have begun to resurrect all kinds of ancient biomolecules, including hormone receptors and even ancient molecular machines.
Today, Betül Kaçar and Eric Gaucher at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta reveal that they have combined these techniques to perform a remarkable experiment.