However, the direct visualization, location, and manipulation of individual CNTs is extremely difficult due to their nanoscale diameters. The observation of individual CNTs usually requires electron microscopes under high vacuum. Advanced analytical equipment, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM), etc., have been employed to characterize the location, morphology, and structure of CNTs. However, all the above mentioned techniques cannot guarantee the efficient location and manipulation of ultralong CNTs, due to their characteristics such as limited accessibility, requiring high vacuum, narrow field of view, and small operating space.
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