Seventeen people were arrested on Monday after staging a sit-in at the office of incoming Senate minority leader Charles E. Schumer.
About 40 people called on the New York Democrat to step aside from the position and allow Vermont independent Sen. Bernie Sanders to take it.
Capitol Police spokeswoman Eva Malecki said those arrested were charged with blocking or obstructing a public space. They were taken to Capitol Police headquarters for processing.
"People here are either going to meet with Schumer or get arrested," said Waleed Shahid, a leader of the group All of Us 2016, which organized the protest, before the police moved in.
Two staff assistants stared at their computer screens in Schumer's Hart Building office while trying to ignore the spectacle in front of them.