The alternative is only whether the crisis should come sooner as the result of a voluntary abandonment of further credit expansion, or later as a final and total catastrophe of the currency system involved."
- Ludwig von Mises
The Federal Reserve chart above only goes back to 1970, but its message is clear, nevertheless. The velocity of money has dropped below that which was necessary to maintain a productive economy in 2009 and has never recovered.
The velocity of money can be defined as, "the rate at which money circulates or is exchanged in an economy in a given period." It's generally measured as a ratio of gross national product (GNP) to a country's total money supply.
No money turnover… no economy.