Singapore researchers have a terahertz (THz) wave chip that can transmit at a data rate of 11 Gigabits per second (Gbit/s). It is capable of supporting real-time streaming of 4K high-definition video and passes the theoretical limit of 10 Gbit/s for 5G wireless communications.
The small silicon chip has rows of triangular holes. The small triangles pointing in the opposite direction to larger triangles, light waves become "topologically protected".
This all-silicon chip demonstrated it could transmit signals error-free while routing THz waves around 10 sharp corners at a rate of 11 gigabits per second. It gets around any material defects that may have been introduced in the silicon manufacturing process.