The arrests in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia - that came after a tip off from US officials in recent months - include a childcare worker and a children's football coach.
Between them, the accused are facing 828 charges of sexually abusing children, producing and distributing child abuse material and bestiality, Australian Federal Police Assistant Commissioner Justine Gough said.
Investigators identified 46 victims in Australia aged 16 months to 15 years.
'No child should be subjected to abuse and violence from the people they trust, whether that is a family member, a childcare worker or a soccer coach,' Gough said.
'Sadly and heartbreakingly, this has been the case for the victims' abused in Australia.
Police referred 18 'matters' to the United States, where three men have been arrested for multiple offences related to child abuse material, Gough said.
Another 128 matters were referred to authorities in Canada, Asia, Europe and New Zealand for investigation. Police have not elaborated on those allegations.
The U.S. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, a government-funded nonprofit, provided Australian police with their initial tip in February that a man in New South Wales was uploading child abuse material, Gough said.
Police arrested a 30-year-old man in Wyong, a town north of Sydney, and a search of his computer revealed social media forums he was part of.
Following this, police arrested more people included a childcare worker, football coach, disability support worker, an electrician, supermarket employee and chef.
In some of the most extreme cases, offenders allegedly recorded the abuse of the children and shared the footage online.
The ring used 'the regular internet' as well as the dark web to share material, Gough said. 'It's a very, very large investigation that we've uncovered,' he added.