These structures enable neurons to reach out and establish contact with neighboring neurons.
Upon establishing contact, neurons release neurotransmitters, chemical substances that can either stimulate or inhibit the activity of the receiving neuron. This interaction enables communication between neurons. With repeated activation, specific connections between neurons can become stronger, while unused connections may undergo weakening or elimination, a process known as synaptic pruning.
This dynamic process of synaptic connectivity serves as a foundational mechanism that underlies the brain's ability to learn and remember.