Researchers identified critical parameters against which to assess progress and provided a summary of published efforts.
Using lithium (less than 30 microns) rather than thick lithium foils for numerous reasons, including the ability to detect soft shorts.
If the lithium metal electrode can be proven to cycle in small research cells using the four parameters identified here, with material and processing costs consistent with the cost target at scale, additional challenges and opportunities will be evident. A dense lithium foil cycled with high per-cycle utilization is required and will result in significant volume changes in large-format cells; the resulting stresses and shape change may limit cycling and have deleterious side effects. Lithium metal electrodes with minimal volume change, or novel types of large-format cells or packs containing them, are possible solutions.