The four-day visit is the first time a Chinese naval vessel has called at a port in the Islamic republic, across the Gulf from Bahrain where the US Fifth Fleet is based.
The two navies will conduct joint search and rescue exercises and training for maritime accidents, according to Admiral Hossein Azad, a senior commander of the Iranian navy, quoted by media.
Iran's navy has boosted its international presence over the past few years, in particular to help guard commercial vessels in the Gulf of Aden against pirate attacks.
Ships from Iran's navy have called at Chinese ports in the past.
Iran and China have greatly enhanced their trade and economic relations in recent years.
China has become Iran's largest trading partner.