Today?s computers can be traced back at least to Blaise Pascal?s 1642 mechanical calculator. The modern era in computing started with the unveiling of ENIAC on February 15, 1946. The development of the transistor in 1948 enabled the creation of integrated circuits in 1958, which, in turn, enabled the first microprocessor in 1971. Since then the clock frequency of the microprocessors has increased 1,000-fold. As remarkable as this evolution is, it has been headed in a direction diametrically opposite to the computing paradigm of the brain. Consequently, today?s microprocessors are eight orders of magnitude faster (in terms of clock rate) and four orders of magnitude hotter (in terms of power per unit cortical area) than the brain.
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