While such a platform is naturally suited to address problems in quantum chemistry and materials science, applications range to fields as far as classical dynamics and computer science. A key milestone on the path towards realizing these applications will be the demonstration of an algorithm which exceeds the capabilities of any classical computer -achieving quantum supremacy. Sampling problems are an iconic example of algorithms designed specifically for this purpose. A successful demonstration of quantum supremacy would prove that engineered quantum systems, while still in their infancy, can outperform the most advanced classical computers.
Storing the state of a 46-qubit system takes nearly a petabyte of memory and is at the limit of the most powerful computers. Sampling from the output probabilities of such a system would therefore constitute a clear demonstration of quantum supremacy.